Why do diamonds sparkle: A diamond without any proper cut, looks like a normal stone. It is brought into a shape by cutting it in the proper manner, such that light enters into the diamond and gets reflected by creating patterns. Diamond has two sections, the upper section is called crown and the lower section is called pavilion.
Did you know that a round brilliant cut diamond (i.e.57 facet) can create a kaleidoscope effect which makes most beautiful patterns. We will get to know how this is formed.
When a light incident on the crown of a diamond, it gets refracted as the light enters from rarer to denser medium and gets dispersed. In refraction the light travels from one medium to another medium, when the light travels from rarer medium to denser medium, the speed of light decreases.
In a diamond, the speed of light is reduced by 2.42 times than its actual speed in vacuum. The light gets dispersed inside a diamond due to high refractive index, and in dispersion the light splits into seven different colors. The dispersed light incidents on the surface and gets reflected back as the angle of incidence of light is greater than the critical angle.
The light gets reflected inside the diamond multiple times till it achieves the minimum angle to escape from the diamond (i.e., 24 degrees). So, jewelers cut the diamond facets in a very peculiar manner so that the maximum amount of incident light can enter the diamond at an angle greater than critical angle and undergo multiple reflections and make the diamond sparkle. Due to these multiple reflection diamond sparkle.
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